Jul 27

Decline of Timbuktu

PEAK OF TIMBUKTU Timbuktu was at its peak when dominated by Songhai Empire during 16th century. Population had reached 80,000 and it was famous as capital of colleges, when more than 100 colleges in Islamic world established in the city. Number of students had reached 25,000 at its peak, and one of the colleges, known …

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Jul 16

Timbuktu (Tombouctou region) and Empires in Western Africa (Ghana, Mali, Songhai)


Timbuktu is located in Tombouctou Region in¬†central Mali, along middle north bank of the Niger River. It is situated between the tropical rain forest in the south and Sahara desert in the north, it is the key point for trading horses, textiles, weapons, salt from Sahara and African slaves hundreds of years ago. The trading …

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Jun 28

Inca: Vanish of the civilization


The Inca civilizations reached its peak in early 16th century, just before the Spanish colonists sudden arrived and put an end to them. Size of the Spanish force was very small, but they were technology much superior to the Incas, and they probably had the best pre-modern war tactics at that time. In comparison, Inca …

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Jun 19

Inca: Mesoamerica civilization dedicating the sun god

Saksaq Waman1

Culture of the sun god Inca civilization was one of the largest ancient civilizations in Mesoamerica, expanding from Cusco, Peru. They had inherited many characteristics from the previous Mesoamerican civilizations like Olmec. Many large cities had been built, and one of the major characteristics of Inca is all humans apart from the king were slaves …

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Jun 13

Sumerians: Mystery of advanced knowledge and technology

Sumerian Cuneiform

Being one of the most developed civilizations of Mesopotamia, Sumerians also left lots of mysteries to historians and scientists. Besides one of the first utilising cuneiforms, the advanced lunar calendar, system of seven days per week, Saxagesimal (base 60) system, knowledge in astrology, metal alloy techniques were all well known to be achievements of Sumerians, …

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